W05Jan Course Introduction.
Topics: Course overview and standards.
Discussion of sources and methodology.
F07Jan Jews and Persians.
Topics: The effects of the Babylonian
captivity; Cyrus Decree (538 B.C.; cf. Cyrus Cylinder)
and Zerubabbel; Promulgation of Artazerxes I (458 B.C.)
and Ezra; Nehemiah (432 B.C.); ‘am haggôlâ versus
‘am h ’ retz; Yehud under the Persians; temple
and Torah. The Jewish periphery or "near Diaspora" in
old Israel; the far Diaspora: the cases of Elephantine
and Nippur. Johanan kills brother Yeshua, leading to
Bagoses’ defilement of the temple; Manasseh marries
daughter of Sanballat.
Readings: Ezra, Nehemiah (HCSB with
intros, 646–79); Joseph. AJ. 11.1.1–5.8, 7.1–8.2
(§1–183, 297–312; Whiston, 359–83).
16–202-JCWNT,16-20.pdf; Bickerman, 26–50.
M10Jan Jews and Alexander.
Topics: A very brief sketch of
Hellenic antecedents; overview of Alexander’s life and
empire; Alexander at Jerusalem. Alexander remembered:
applying Daniel’s prophecy. Hecataeus and the Jews.
Readings: Joseph. AJ. 11.8.3–7
(§313–7; Whiston, 383–86); "Pseudo" Hecataeus, intro and
fragments 3–4 = Joseph. Ap. 1.22, 2.4 (OTP,
906–907, 913–918 = §1.183–205, 2.43; Whiston,
948–49, 962); Daniel 2:2–45, 8:1–27 (HCSB,
JCWNT, 27–32; Bickerman, 3–19; Cecilia M. Peek,
"Alexander the Great Comes to Jerusalem," BYU Studies
36.3 (1996–97): 99–112 (posted online).
W12Jan The Struggle for Succession
Topic: “Native” resistance to Hellenism . . . and the exception among the Jews of Alexandria. The Greek Torah and the development of the Septuagint. Aristobolus and Greek philosophy. Romans and Hellenism.
Joseph. AJ. 12.2.115 (§11–118; Whiston, 388–95); Letter of Aristeas, OTP 2:7–33 (posted online; read intro and skim text); Aristobolus, intro and fragment 3 (OTP, 2:831–36, 841).
“Translating the Septuagint” JCWNT, 8; Bickerman, 81–89, 101–116; Melvin K. Peters, s.v., “Septuagint,” ABD 5:1093, 1096–97.; Helyer, 75–92; 276–287; NETS, xiv–xx (n.b. xvii–xviii), 1–5.
F15Jan The Jews and Hellenism.
Topics: Ptolemaic Alexandria and royal
patronage. The Greek polis in a near eastern
setting; case studies: Alexandia, Antioch, and Pergamum.
Royal capitals and the government of Hellenistic states.
Readings: Green, 80–91, 155–70, 187–200;
W19Jan Josephus as a Source.
- Topics: Yosef ben Matthias ha-kohen—life, career, and writings. Critical evaluation of Josephus.
- Readings: Joseph. Vit. 1–15, 74–76 (§1–83, 407–430; Whiston, 17–22, 41–42).
- Eric D. Huntsman, “The Reliability of Josephus: Can He Be Trusted?” BYU Studies 36.3 (1996–7), 392–402; Helyer, 336–375.
Focus on Writing: Doing a Source Analysis.
M29Jan Jews and the Ptolemies.
Topics: Ptolemy II Soter and the First
Syrian War (274–71 B.C.) with Antiochus I Soter; Ptolemy
III Euergetes and Seleucus II Callinicus fight the Third
Syrian War (246–41 B.C.) over Laodicea; Joseph son of
Tobias prostates (243–218 B.C.); Judea under the
Ptolemies and the Tobiads. Coele-Syria between Ptolemy
IV Philapator and Antiochus III the Great during the
Fourth Syrian War (219–217 B.C.). The Battle of Raphia.
Readings: Joseph. AJ. 12.4.1–11
(§154–236; Whiston, 398–402).
Bickerman, 69–80, 89–90; Green 137–54, 497–503,
W31Jan Apocrypha I.
Topics: Jews and Gentiles, suffering and
healing: the story of Tobit. Nothing to do with the
Maccabees: Dositheus and Ptolemy IV Philopator in 3
Readings: Tobit (HCSB with intro,
1293–1312); 3 Maccabees (HCSB with intro,
1573–1587); Joseph. Ap. 1.1 (§1–5; Whiston, 937)
and 2.5 (§48–64, Whiston, 963–64).
F02Feb Jews and the Seleucids.
Topics: The anabasis of Antiochus III
the Great (212–205 B.C.); Rome expells Antiochus III
from Egypt, but he retakes and holds Coele-Syria (198
B.C.); Antiochus III defeated by Rome at Magnesia (189
B.C.). The Jerusalem temple and priesthood un the second
century. Seleucus IV Philopator sends Heliodorus to
Jerusalem (178 B.C.); Simon "the Just" dies, is succeed
by "Jason" (176/5 B.C.); the Hellenization of Jerusalem
Readings: 2 Maccabees 1:1–4:22 (HCSB
with intro, 1519–26).
Bickerman, 91–93, 117–129, 133–47; Green, 503–512.
Review for Quiz 1
M05Feb Apocrypha II and Pseudepigrapha.
Topics: Scribes and Sages. The wisdom of
Jesus son of Sirach. Judith and Holofernes. Jubilees,
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and Jewish Orphica.
Readings: Sirach (HCSB with
intro, 1378–1451); Judith (HCSB with intro,
Bickerman, 93–100, 161–91, 201–236.
Take-home quiz distributed.
Hasmoneans I. Quiz 1 due
Topics: The "megalomania" of Antiochus IV
Ephiphanes begins; Menelaus high priest by bribery (170
B.C.); Jerusalem Temple dedicated to Olympian Zeus (167
B.C.): the abomination of desolation? Akra built in
Jerusalem; Mattathias and his sons begin the "Maccabean"
Revolt; Temple rededicated, Antiochus IV dies in Media
(164 B.C.); Death of Judas Maccaabeus, who is succeed by
his brother Jonathan (160 B.C.); Jonathan becomes high
priest (153/52 B.C.); Seleucid succession struggles;
Simon becomes high priest and ethnarch (c. 142 B.C.).
Readings: 2 Maccabees 4:23–7:42 (HCSB
1526–1533); Daniel 7:1–12:13 (HCSB with intro,
1168–69, 1182–92); 1 Maccabees (HCSB with intro,
1477–1518); Joseph. AJ. 12.5.1–13.7.4
(§12.237–13.229; Whiston, 403–435); cf. BJ
1.1.1–2.3 (§31–53; Whiston, 670–72).
21-22; Green, 512–524, 533–34; Schürer, 1:125–229,
Hasmonean Family Tree
F09Feb Hasmoneans II.
Topics: John Hyrcanus, high priest and
ethnarch (c. 134–104 B.C.); Samaritan temple destroyed,
Idumea Judaized, Galilee "liberated" and/or colonized;
the rise of Jewish sects–Sadducees, Pharisees, and
Essenes; the rise of Jewish sects–Sadducees, Pharisees,
and Essenes. Ptolemaic affairs: Alexandrian Jews support
Cleopatra II against Ptolemy VII (Physcon); Egypt and
Syria in disarray. Judah Aristobolus, king and high
priest (104–103 B.C.); his brutality; succeeded by his
brother Alexander Jannaeus (103–76 B.C.). Salome
Alexandra queen (76–67 B.C.); her alliance with the
Readings: Joseph. AJ 13.8.1–16.6;
18.1.2–6 (§13.230–432, 18.9–25; Whiston, 436–54,
585–87); BJ 1.2.3–5.4; 2.8.2–14 (§1.54–119;
2.119–166; Whiston, 672–77, 736–39).
JCWNT, 22–25; Green, 535–37; Schürer,
1:200-232; 2:339-55, 381-414, 555-90; 2:413–414,
491–92, 550–554; Anthony J. Saldarini, "Pharisees,"
ABD 5.291–94, 301–303; Gary G. Porton, "Sadducees,"
ABD 5.892–95; John J. Collins, "Essenes," ABD
Sa10–Tu13Feb; W14Feb (late)
M12Feb No class.
W14Feb The Advent of Rome.
Topics: More Ptolemaic and Seleucid
misadventures (just read through the material, do not
try to grasp it all!). Rome’s expansion in the east:
imperialism or entangling alliances? Roman excesses in
Asia and Greece, particularly the publicani open
the door for Mithridates; Sulla’s brutality to Athens.
The Pirate War leads to the lex Gabinia and
Pompey’s maius imperium; the lex Manilia
gives Pompey the command against a renewed Mithridate
and, by extension, a free hand in the east; Pompey’s
eastern settlement ends the Seleucid Empire. Crassus and
Carrhae (53 B.C.); Cleopatra VII: first Caesar, then
Antony; Actium (31 B.C.) and Octavia; the end of the
Readings: Ball, 8–15; Green, 537–44, 647–82.
F16Feb Herod’s Rise.
Topics: Aristobolus II vs. Hycanus II;
Hyrcanus appeals to Pompey, who takes Jerusalem (63
B.C.); the background and role of Antipater; the
Decapolis; Gabinius’ intervention against Alexander (57
B.C.); Phasael and Herod receive commands; Herod and the
"brigand" Hezekiah; Herod’s trial; Pompey, then Caesar,
then "the liberators"; the levy of Cassius on the east;
Malchus poisons Antipater; Herod betrothed to Marianne;
Parthian invasion under Acorus, Antigonus buys the
kingship; the Roman senate proclaims Herod king.
Readings: Joseph. AJ 14.1.1–14.6
(§1–393; Whiston, 454–84); BJ 1.6.1–14.4
(§120–285; Whiston, 677– 92).
Ball, 47–51, 181–97; Richardson, 76–80, 88–130.
M19Feb PRESIDENTS’ DAY. No Class.
Topics: Herod returns to Galilee and raises
and army; rescues family from Masada; failed attack on
Jerusalem (39 B.C.). Herod assists Antony against
Parthia? Revolts in Galilee and Idumea. Battle for
Jerusalem; marries Marianne; with Sossius takes the city
(37 B.C.). Disputes with Alexandra; pressure from
Cleopatra; the Nabatean War (32–31 B.C.); murder of
Hyrcanus II; Herod meets Octavian at Rhodes.
Readings: Joseph. AJ 14.15.1–15.6.7
(§14.394–15.201; Whiston, 484–507); BJ
1.15.1–20.4 (§286–400; Whiston, 692–702).
Tu20Feb Tuesday is Monday.
W21Feb Herodian Culture and Patronage.
Topics: The building program of Herod;
Caesarea and Sebaste; Herod and religion; digression on
the birth of Jesus; Herod, patron and client.
Readings: Joseph. AJ 15.8.5–11.6
(§292–425; Whiston, 513–25); BJ 1.21.1–13
(§401–430; Whiston, 702–705).
Ball, 51–53, 177–79; Richardson, 174–215, 240–73,
F23Feb Herod and Rome.
Topics: Domestic strife and outrages,
including the murder of Mariamne (29 B.C.); marriages
and sons; Herod pacifies Batanea, Trachonitis, and
Auranitis (24/23 B.C.); visit of Augustus, addition of
Gaulanitis and Panias (20 B.C.); second visit to Rome
(17 B.C.); more domestic discord; Herod presides over
Olympic games (12, perhaps 8, B.C.); out of favor with
Augustus, Herod again visits Rome (8 B.C.); more
domestic discord; Herod dies in March 4 B.C.).
Readings: Joseph. AJ 15.7.1–8.14,
16.1.1–17.8.4 (§15.202–91, 16.1–17.205; Whiston,
507–513, 525–71); BJ 1.22.1–33.9 (§431–673;
Richardson, 216–239, 273–94.
M26Feb Herod’s Successors.
Topics: Herod Archelaus: ethnarch of Judea,
Samaria, and Idumea (4 B.C.–A.D. 6). Herod Antipas:
tetrach of Galilee and Perea (4 BC–AD 39). Herod Philip:
tetrarch of Gaulanitis and Trachonitis (4 B.C.–A.D.
33/34). Roman prefects of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea
(A.D. 6–41). Digression on the Testimonium Flavianum
(Joseph. AJ 18.3.3 [§63–64]). Marcus Julius
Agrippa I (Herod Agrippa I): Philip’s tetrarchy A.D. 37
and Antipas’ A.D. 39; king of all greater Judea (A.D.
Readings: Joseph. AJ 17.9.1–18.8.9,
19.4.1–8.3 (§17.206–18.309, 19.236–353; Whiston,
571–609, 630–39); BJ 2.1.1–8.1, 9.1–11.6 (§1–118,
167–222; Whiston, 728–36, 740–44); Acts 12.
Ball, 53–56; Richardson, 301–314; 442–454;
144–200. See also Schürer,
W28Feb Philo I.
Topics: The background of Philo Judaeus. The
Alexandrian pogrom of A.D. 38; the embassy to Gaius;
Philo’s historical and apologetic treatises.
Readings: Philo, Flacc. (Yonge,
725–41); Legat. (Yonge, 757–790).
Euseb. Hist. eccl. 2.18 (Penguin, 54–55);
Schenk, 9–23, 49–63;
Topics: Philo’s Life of Moses; his
exposition of the law: On the Creation and On
the Special Laws.
Readings: Philo, Mos. 1–2 (Yonge,
517–59); Opif. (Yonge 3–24); Spec. 1.1–34,
2.11–37, 3.1–3 (§1.1–166, 2.41–223, 3.1–16; Yonge,
534–49, 572–89, 594–95).
Schenk 63-65, 99-107
F02Mar Philo II.
M05Mar Philo III.
Topics: Philo’s allegorical commentaries:
Allegorical Interpretation, On the Cherubim,
and Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On the
Contemplative Life—part of a historical treatise?
Readings: Philo, Leg.1.1–3.20
(§1.1–3.61, Yonge, 25–57); Cher. 1–11 (§1–39;
Yonge, 80–84); Her. (Yonge, 176–303); Contempl.
Complete Philo outlines (v.2, 3/2/07).
W07Mar Nascent Christianity.
Topics: The Historical Jesus; the New
Testament church; "Grecians and Hebrews" in Acts 6;
Stephen and the Hellenizers? "Jerusalem" versus
"Antioch" church? "Pauline" churches? The Tübingen
School. Christian and Classical intersections in Acts.
Readings: Acts; Euseb. Hist. eccl.
1.5–2.25 (Penguin, 17–63)
ABD3:796-802 Historical Jesus.;
F09Mar New Testament I.
Topics: Paul’s theology and opponents:
eschatology in Thessalonika, Judaizers in Galatia,
syncretists in Colossae.
Readings: 1 Thessalonians (HCSB with
intro, 2005–2010); Galatians (HCSB with intro,
1972–1981); Colossians (HCSB with intro,
See Rel 212 lectures
19 online (take
M12Mar New Testament II.
Source Analysis Due.
Topics: The Jesus tradition in James;
theology and thought in Hebrews.
Readings: James (HCSB with intro,
2052–2058); Hebrews (HCSB with intro, 2035–2051).
See Rel 212 lectures 21,
23 online (take link at
W14Mar Roman Judaea after A.D. 44.
Topics: The prefects of greater Judea (A.D.
44–66); deteriorating relations with Rome; the speech of
Readings: Joseph. AJ 19.9.1–20.11.3
(§19.354–20.268; Whiston, 640–61); BJ 2.12.1–16.5
(§223–404; Whiston, 744–57).
F16Mar The First Jewish Revolt, A.D. 66–73.
Topics: Events leading up to the revolt; the
role of Josephus; the siege of Jotapata and his
defection; internecine strife in Jerusalem; Vespasian,
proclaimed emperor, leaves his son Titus to prosecute
the siege; the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of
the temple; the Masada "incident."
Readings: Joseph. BJ 2.2.17–3.9.8,
4.3.4–7.6, 5.9.1–13.7, 6.4.1–5.4, 7.8.1–10.3
(§2.405–3.461, 4.121–439, 5.348–572, 6.220–315,
7.252–436; Whiston, 758–99, 811–28, 865–80, 894–99,
925–35); Euseb. Hist. eccl. 2.26 (Penguin,
"And They Cast Lots: Divination, Democracy, and
Josephus," BYU Studies 36.3 (1996–7), 365–377.;
M19Mar New Testament III.
Topics: Christians in a hostile world:
alienation in 1 Peter and persecution in Revelation. The
social situation presupposed by 1 Peter; imperial and
other civic cult. Apocalyptic literature. The situation
of the seven churches. Interpretive approaches to
Revelation. A preterist interpretation: Seals, trumpets,
and bowls of destruction—the Great Whore Jerusalem? The
dragon and the two beasts, another preterist
Readings: 1 Peter (HCSB with intro,
2059–2066); Revelation (HCSB with intro,
JCWNT, 280–97; see Rel 212 lectures 24, 26–28
online (take link at
Tu20–Th22Mar; F23Mar (late)
W21Mar No class.
F23Mar Jews after Jerusalem.
Topics: The restored province of Judea; the
persistence of Marcus Julius Agrippa II; the new
Judaism—Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai and Amnia; conditions
in the Diaspora; Flavian policies.
M26Mar New Testament IV.
Topics: When were the gospels "written?"
What were the gospels’ sources? The Synoptic problem.
Gospel audiences and focuses.
Readings: Matt 1–2, 5–7 (HCSB with
intro, 1665–70, 1674–80); Mark 14–15 (HCSB with
intro, 1722–24, 1751–57); Luke 1–2, 24 (HCSB with
intro, 1759–1767, 1811–13); John 1:1–18; 6; 9; 19–21 (HCSB
with intro, 1814–17, 1825–28, 1833–34, 1849–54); Euseb.
Hist. eccl. 3.24 (Penguin, 86–88).
See Rel 211 lectures 5a, 10a, 15a, and 20a online
(take link at
Attridge CRJ 162 162-170;
Gospels Overview ppt;
W28Mar Developing New Testament Canon.
Topics: Qualifications for canonicity:
apostolic origin, real or putative; importance of
addressed communities; conformity with the rule of
faith. Testimonia of apostolic fathers; the Muratorian
Canon; Eusebius on accepted books; developing canon in
east and west; Athanasius of Alexandria’s Festal Letter.
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3.3, 25
(Penguin, 65–66, 88–89).
Brown, INT 3–15;
CNT, 1–8, 39–40, 191–213 (all online).
Eusebius as a Source.
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 1.1–4,
3.25 (Penguin, 1–16, 88–89).
Andrew Louth’s introduction to Eusebius
(Penguin, ix–xxxv); McKechnie, 102–107.
F30Mar Focus on Writing: Doing an Exegetical Paper.
Topics: "Interpreting" the New
Testament—hermeneutics, exegesis, exposition. Biblical
criticisms and other tools.
205–209; Huntsman, "Teaching through Exegesis: Helping
Students Ask Questions of the Text," Religious
Educator 6.1 (Winter 2005).;
Interpretations of the NT.
Su01Apr PALM SUNDAY. Matt 21:1–17; Mark 11:1–11; Luke
19:28–48; John 12:12–19.
M02Apr PASSOVER BEGINS AT SUNSET.
The Second Christian Generation; Apostolic Fathers I.
Topics: The Didache: evidence of a
growing institution; 1 Clement: a homily on Christian
ministry; The Shepherd of Hermas: an
almost-canonical vision; the Jewish-Christian divide.
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3.11–23,
30–32 (Penguin, 79–85, 93–96); Did. (ECW,
185–99); 1 Clem. (ECW, 19–51).
JCWNT, 303–307; McKechnie, 67–92.
Attridge -CRJ 151-62;
Intro to Shepherds of Hermas
W04Apr Growing Christian Diversity.
Topics: The legacy of Simon Magus; Ebionites,
Cerinthus, Nicolaitans. Gnosticism, Montanism, and
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3.26–29
McKechnie. 101–102, 151–89.
Attridge - CRJ 171-81
Th05Apr THE LAST SUPPER AND GETHSEMANE. Matthew 26; Mark
14; Luke 22; John 13:1–18:27.
F06Apr GOOD FRIDAY. No class. Matthew 27;
Mark 15; Luke 23; John 18:28–19:42; 3 Nephi 8.
Su08Apr EASTER. Matthew 28; Mark 16; Luke 24; John
M09Apr Jews and Rome—Bar Kokhba and Other Revolts.
Bar Kokhba Map;
- Topics: Alexandria and Cyrene; the Second
Jewish Revolt (A.D. 132–135); the continuing Roman
W11Apr Apostolic Fathers II; Irenaeus.
Topics: Defending the faith, welcoming
martyrdom: the epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp; Justin
Martyr; the zeal of Irenaeus; Tertullian.
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl.
3.33–5.28 (Penguin, 96–178); Ign. Eph., Mag.,
Smyrn., Phld., Rom., and Pol.
(ECW, 55–111); Pol. Phil. and Mart. Pol
McKechnie, 93–101; Ehrman, 193–224.
F13Apr Christians and Rome.
Topics: Growth outside the empire—the
case of Edessa.. The complicated story of Roman
persecutions within the empire; the changing
Roman view of Christians; the systematic persecution of
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 1:13,
3.33, 6.1–7.32 (Penguin, 30–34; 96–97, 179–255); Plin.
Ep. 10.96–97 (LR II no. 167).
Ball, 87–96; McKechnie, 109–135; Eusebius’ list of
persecutions (posted online).
M16Apr The Great Persecution and Constantine.
Exegetical Paper Due.
Topics: The persecution under Diocletian and
Valerian; shifting tides: Constantine’s religious
policies; the Edict of Milan and favorable toleration.
Readings: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8.1–10.9
Ball, 356–59; McKechnie, 217–39.
M23Apr FINAL EXAMINATION, 2:30–5:30 P.M.